Different methods on how to tattoo the design to the skin

When you and the customer have chosen the right design, there must be a way to transfer it to the body part getting tattooed. Even the best tattoo artists rarely work totally freehand (that is, to just start tattooing with no guidelines at all on the body). Remember, there is no erasing a tattoo once it is on.
There has to be some type of guide on the skin so you know where you are going and what it might look like ahead of time. In the tattoo trade, this transfer method from the design to the skin is called a stencil and there are many different ways it can be done.
The Ways we are going to cover are among the most popular and it is a personal choice on the tattooist’s part to see which ones work the best for him. The most commonly used methods are drawing on the duplicating carbon, the use of hectograph ink, acetate stencils, the latest stencil creating machines and the simple skin type marker.
First, a word about the design outcome. When drawing a design on paper, it must be remembered that when it is flipped over to put on the skin, it will come out in reverse. This is easily proven by drawing on a piece of paper. Flip it over and hold it up to the light. This is what you will get on the skin. With this in mind, all the designs will have to be drawn in accordance to where they will be placed.  If you want the tattoo to appear in the same direction as the design, the design will have to be reversed or flipped over before the stencils are even commenced.  It is wise to practice doing this on several different designs to understand this principle and to work out your own system of reversing.

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Bacterias, sterilization and tattoos.

Bacteria possess certain characteristics such as: some require oxygen to live, they are known as Aerobic. Those that do not are know as Anaerobic. There are bacteria that are called Thermostabile, which means that they are not easily altered or decomposed by heat… those that are Thermolabile are easily decomposed by heat.
You will also come across the term spore. A spore is a reproductive cell produced by plants and some protozoans – it is the asexual reproduction of many unicellular animals and plants. These spores possess thick walls enabling them to withstand unfavorable environmental conditions such as extreme heat.
Certain bacteria form spores but more in the nature of a defense mechanism than for reproduction. These spores are difficult to destroy because they are very resistant and require prolonged exposure to heat to destroy them.
So, as we see, some bacteria love heat, and if they are spore formers, high heat alone will not do the job, so dry heat is out.
Some sterilizers utilize boiling water and steam in an unsealed receptacle know as “flowing steam”… temperature 212° F (IOO C)… this is also inadequate. Boiling water alone is good for tea and coffee but useless against bacteria.
Exposing the article to heat and steam at intermittent intervals, called tyndal-ization… is another inadequate procedure.
How about sterilization by gas, e.g., ethylene oxide. Great, but too explosive. Or formaldehyde… again, great, but formaldehyde is trapped in a ruling right now linking it as a carcinogen (able to cause cancer); also too dangerous.
We are narrowed down to the autoclave, the instrument of choice, that kills not only bacteria, but also spores.
To autoclave properly, we must first understand the mechanics of the system. This employs a temperature of 273° F, with steam under pressure of 15-17 pounds per square inch (PSI) for 30 minutes (50 minutes from cold start) and a 15 minute cool down or drying period (the door can be open about 1″ during this period).

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